Basic Science

Latest journal articles on bone and joint basic science research from Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Journal of Biomechanics, Connective Tissue Research, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, The Bone & Joint Journal, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Acta Orthopaedica, Orthopedic Clinics of North, America, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, Orthopedics

The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS) is the #1 clinical review journal of musculoskeletal education in the world. The peer-reviewed articles presented each month in JAAOS critically evaluate and synthesize current information regarding the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal conditions and document the current state of orthopaedic practice. The editorial board of JAAOS represents every subspecialty within orthopaedic medicine: Sports Medicine, Trauma, Pediatric Orthopaedics, Hip and Knee, Spine, Shoulder and Elbow, Hand and Wrist, Foot and Ankle, and Musculoskeletal Oncology, as well as areas of general orthopaedic interest. This diversity of topics is reflected in every issue of the Journal.

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BACKGROUND: The most common historical treatment method for congenital vertical talus is extensive soft-tissue release surgery. A minimally invasive treatment approach that relies primarily on serial cast correction was introduced almost ten years ago, with promising early results. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of patients with congenital vertical talus managed with the minimally invasive technique and compare them with a cohort treated with extensive soft-tissue release surgery. METHODS: The records of twenty-seven consecutive patients with vertical talus (forty-two feet) were retrospectively reviewed at a mean of seven years (range, five to 11.3 years) after initial correction was achieved.

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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of two proposed mechanisms, strength imbalance and impaired longitudinal muscle growth, to osseous and postural deformity in a rat model of brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP). METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rat pups were divided into four groups on the basis of surgical interventions to induce a strength imbalance, impaired growth, both a strength imbalance and impaired growth (a combined mechanism), and a sham condition in the left forelimb. Maximum passive external shoulder rotation angle (ERmax) was measured bilaterally at four and eight weeks postoperatively. After the rats were killed at eight weeks, the glenohumeral geometry (on microcomputed tomography) and shoulder muscle architecture properties were measured bilaterally.

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212 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: (((("J Appl Biomech"[Journal]) OR "Connect Tissue Res"[Journal]) OR "J Biomech"[Journal]) OR "J Orthop Res"[Journal]) OR "Osteoarthritis Cartilage"[Journal] These pubmed results were generated on 2013/11/30

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120 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: (((("J Appl Biomech"[Journal]) OR "Connect Tissue Res"[Journal]) OR "J Biomech"[Journal]) OR "J Orthop Res"[Journal]) OR "Osteoarthritis Cartilage"[Journal] These pubmed results were generated on 2013/09/22  

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Related Articles Effect of boundary conditions, impact loading and hydraulic stiffening on femoral fracture strength. J Biomech. 2013 Jul 30; Authors: Haider IT, Speirs AD, Frei H Abstract

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Related Articles Cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis and cartilage repair procedures. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Jul 26; Authors: Baum T, Joseph GB, Karampinos DC, Jungmann PM, Link TM, Bauer JS Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to review the current literature on cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time. METHODS: Electronic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant studies about T2 relaxation time measurements as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and cartilage repair procedures.

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Related Articles Rapid in situ chondrocyte death induced by Staphylococcus aureus toxins in a bovine cartilage explant model of septic arthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Jul 26; Authors: Smith ID, Winstanley JP, Milto KM, Doherty CJ, Czarniak E, Amyes SG, Simpson AH, Hall AC Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess in situ chondrocyte viability following exposure to a laboratory strain and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Bovine cartilage explants were cultured in the presence of S. aureus 8325-4 (laboratory strain), clinical S. aureus isolates or non-infected culture medium of pH values 7.4, 6.4 and 5.4. All clinical isolates were isolated from the joint aspirates of patients presenting with S. aureus-induced septic arthritis. At designated time points, in situ chondrocyte viability was assessed within defined regions-of-interest in the axial and coronal plane following live- and dead-cell image acquisition using the fluorescent probes 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, respectively, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Cartilage water content, following S. aureus 8325-4 exposure, was obtained by measuring cartilage wet and dry weights.

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Related Articles Demineralized bone matrix and platelet-rich plasma do not improve healing of osteochondral defects of the talus: an experimental goat study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Jul 26; Authors: van Bergen CJ, Kerkhoffs GM, Ozdemir M, Korstjens CM, Everts V, van Ruijven LJ, van Dijk CN, Blankevoort L Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) with and without platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteochondral defects (OCDs) of the talus. We hypothesized that treatment with DBM would result in more bone formation than no treatment in control OCDs, and that PRP would further enhance the regenerative capacity of DBM. METHOD: A standardized 6-mm OCD was created in each talus of 16 adult goats. According to a randomization scheme, one OCD of each goat was treated with allogeneic DBM hydrated with normal saline (n = 8) or hydrated with autologous PRP (n = 8). The contralateral OCD (n = 16) served as control. After 24 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the tali excised. Various outcome parameters were analyzed with use of macroscopic evaluation, micro-computed tomography, histology, histomorphometry, and fluorescence microscopy.

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Related Articles Energy cost of balance control during walking decreases with external stabilizer stiffness independent of walking speed. J Biomech. 2013 Jul 26; Authors: Ijmker T, Houdijk H, Lamoth CJ, Beek PJ, van der Woude LH Abstract Human walking requires active neuromuscular control to ensure stability in the lateral direction, which inflicts a certain metabolic load. The magnitude of this metabolic load has previously been investigated by means of passive external lateral stabilization via spring-like cords. In the present study, we applied this method to test two hypotheses: (1) the effect of external stabilization on energy cost depends on the stiffness of the stabilizing springs, and (2) the energy cost for balance control, and consequently the effect of external stabilization on energy cost, depends on walking speed. Fourteen healthy young adults walked on a motor driven treadmill without stabilization and with stabilization with four different spring stiffnesses (between 760 and 1820Nm(-1)) at three walking speeds (70%, 100%, and 130% of preferred speed). Energy cost was calculated from breath-by-breath oxygen consumption. Gait parameters (mean and variability of step width and stride length, and variability of trunk accelerations) were calculated from kinematic data. On average external stabilization led to a decrease in energy cost of 6% (p<0.005) as well as a decrease in step width (24%; p<0.001), step width variability (41%; p<0.001) and

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