Basic Science

Latest journal articles on bone and joint basic science research from Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Journal of Biomechanics, Connective Tissue Research, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, The Bone & Joint Journal, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Acta Orthopaedica, Orthopedic Clinics of North, America, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, Orthopedics

Related Articles Intrarater Test-Retest Reliability of Static and Dynamic Stability Indexes Measurement Using the Biodex® Balance System During Unilateral Stance. J Appl Biomech. 2013 Jul 20; Authors: Arifin N, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA Abstract The measurements of postural balance often involve measurement error which affects the analysis and interpretation of the outcomes. In most of the existing clinical rehabilitation research, the ability to produce reliable measures is a prerequisite for an accurate assessment of an intervention after a period of time. Although clinical balance assessment has been performed in previous study, none has determined the intrarater test-retest reliability of static and dynamic stability indexes during dominant single stance. In this study, one rater examined twenty healthy university students (Female= 12, Male= 8) in two sessions separated by seven days intervals. Three stability indexes which are Overall stability index (OSI), anterior/ posterior stability index (APSI), and medial/ lateral stability index (MLSI) in static and dynamic conditions were measured during single dominant stance. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error measurement (SEM) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Test-retest ICC for OSI, APSI, and MLSI were 0.85, 0.78, and 0.84 during static condition while 0.77, 0.77, and 0.65 during dynamic condition, respectively. We concluded that the postural stability assessment using Biodex balance system (BSS) demonstrates 'good to excellent' test-retest reliability over a one-week time interval. PMID: 23878204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23878204?dopt=Abstract

Related Articles Connexin 43 is a potential regulator in fluid shear stress-induced signal transduction in osteocytes. J Orthop Res. 2013 Jul 22; Authors: Li X, Liu C, Li P, Li S, Zhao Z, Chen Y, Huo B, Zhang D Abstract

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Related Articles Implant-associated localized osteitis in murine femur fracture by biofilm forming Staphylococcus aureus: A novel experimental model. J Orthop Res. 2013 Jul 22; Authors: Windolf CD, Meng W, Lögters TT, Mackenzie CR, Windolf J, Flohé S Abstract

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Related Articles Hyperbaric oxygen therapy suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. J Orthop Res. 2013 Jul 22; Authors: Hadi HA, Smerdon GR, Fox SW Abstract The cellular and molecular mechanism through which hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) improves osteonecrosis (ON) is unclear. The present study therefore examined the effect of HBO, pressure and hyperoxia on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells and human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC). Daily exposure to HBO (2.4 ATA, 97% O2 , 90 min), hyperbaric pressure (2.4 ATA, 8.8% O2 , 90 min) or normobaric hyperoxia (1 ATA, 95% O2 , 90 min) significantly decreased RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in normoxic conditions. HBO had a more pronounced anti-osteoclastic effect than hyperoxia or pressure alone and also directly inhibited osteoclast formation and resorption in hypoxic conditions a hallmark of many osteolytic skeletal disorders. The suppressive action of HBO was at least in part mediated through a reduction in RANK, NFATc1, and Dc-STAMP expression and inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression. This data provides mechanistic evidence supporting the use of HBO as an adjunctive therapy to prevent osteoclast formation and bone loss associated with low oxygen partial pressure. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. PMID: 23878004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23878004?dopt=Abstract

Related Articles Local administration of alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and promoted graft-bone tunnel healing with minimal systemic effect on bone in contralateral knee. J Orthop Res. 2013 Jul 22; Authors: Lui PP, Lee YW, Mok TY, Cheuk YC Abstract

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Related Articles Correction of Joint Angles From Kinect for Balance Exercising and Assessment. J Appl Biomech. 2013 Jul 22; Authors: de Rosario H, Belda-Lois JM, Fos F, Medina E, Poveda-Puente R, Kroll M Abstract The new generation of videogame interfaces such as Microsoft's Kinect opens the possibility of implementing exercise programs for physical training, and of evaluating and reducing the risks of elderly people falling. However, applications such as these might require measurements of joint kinematics that are more robust and accurate than the standard output given by the available middleware. This paper presents a method based on particle filters for calculating joint angles from the positions of the anatomical points detected by PrimeSense's NITE software. The application of this method to the measurement of lower limb kinematics reduced the error by one order of magnitude, to less than 10º, except for hip axial rotation, and it was advantageous over inverse kinematic analysis, in ensuring a robust and smooth solution without singularities, when the limbs are out-stretched and anatomical landmarks are aligned. PMID: 23877057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23877057?dopt=Abstract

Related Articles Shoulder Kinematics is Not Influenced by External Load During Elevation in the Scapular Plane. J Appl Biomech. 2013 Jul 20; Authors: de Castro MP, Ribeiro DC, de Forte F, de Toledo JM, Aldabe D, Loss JF Abstract The present study aimed to compare the shoulder kinematics (3D scapular orientation, scapular angular displacement and scapulohumeral rhythm) of asymptomatic participants under unloaded and loaded conditions during unilateral shoulder elevation in the scapular plane. We utilized a repeated measures design with a convenience sample. Eleven male participants with an age range of 21 to 28 years with no recent history of shoulder injury participated in the study. The participants performed isometric shoulder elevation from a neutral position to approximately 150º of elevation in the scapular plane in intervals of ≈30º during unloaded and loaded conditions. Shoulder kinematic data were obtained with videogrammetry. During shoulder elevation, the scapula rotated upwardly and externally, and tilted posteriorly. The addition of an external load did not affect 3D scapular orientation, scapular angular displacement, or scapulohumeral rhythm throughout shoulder elevation (p>0.05). In clinical practice, clinicians should expect to observe upward and external rotation and posterior tilt of the scapula during their assessments of shoulder elevation. Such behavior was not influenced by an external load normalized to 5% of body weight when performed in an asymptomatic population. PMID: 23877028 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23877028?dopt=Abstract

Related Articles The Influence of Different Force and Pressure Measuring Transducers on Lower Extremity Kinematics Measured During Running. J Appl Biomech. 2013 Jul 22; Authors: Sinclair J, Hobbs SJ, Taylor PJ, Currigan G, Greenhalgh A Abstract In running analyses where both kinetic and kinematic information is recorded, participants are required to make foot contact with a force and/or pressure measuring transducer. Problems arise if participants modify their gait patterns to ensure contact with the device. There is currently a paucity of research investigating the influence of different underfoot kinetic measuring devices on 3-D kinematics of running. Fifteen participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 in four different conditions; over a floor embedded force plate, Footscan, Matscan and with no device. 3-D angular kinematic parameters were collected using an eight camera motion analysis system. Hip, knee and ankle joint kinematics were contrasted using repeated measures ANOVA's. Participants also rated their subjective comfort in striking each of the three force measuring devices. Significant differences from the uninhibited condition were observed using the Footscan and Matscan in all three planes of rotation, whilst participants subjectively rated the force plate significantly more comfortable than either the Footscan/Matscan devices. The findings of the current investigation therefore suggest that the disguised floor embedded force plate offers the most natural running condition. It is recommended that analyses using devices such as the Footscan/Matscan mats overlying the laboratory surface during running should be interpreted with caution.

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Related Articles Biomechanical maturation of joint dynamics during early childhood: Updated conclusions. J Biomech. 2013 Jul 19; Authors: Samson W, Van Hamme A, Desroches G, Dohin B, Dumas R, Chèze L Abstract

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