Basic Science

Latest journal articles on bone and joint basic science research from Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Journal of Biomechanics, Connective Tissue Research, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, The Bone & Joint Journal, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Acta Orthopaedica, Orthopedic Clinics of North, America, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, Orthopedics

BACKGROUND: Age and peripheral microcirculation disorders are the main causes of rotator cuff degeneration. Acromion variants may affect subacromial space width, causing a pathological narrowing of the space that may compromise the cuff integrity. However, it is not clear if the subacromial space width is genetically determined or if it changes according to loading conditions. To clarify this unresolved question, we performed an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) study with the aim of evaluating the acromiohumeral distance in a group of elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins, and we analyzed the obtained data using the twin design to separate the contributions of shared and unique environments.

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Editor's Pick Subchondral plate porosity colocalizes with the point of mechanical load during ambulation in a rat knee model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Iijima H, Aoyama T, Tajino J, Ito A, Nagai M, Yamaguchi S, Zhang X, Kiyan W, Kuroki H. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Sep 13. pii: S1063-4584(15)01313-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2015.09.001. [Epub ahead of print]

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Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established treatment alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The current guidelines for TAVR are to upsize transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) relative to the native annulus to secure the device and minimize paravalvular leakage. Unlike surgical stented bioprosthetic valves where leaflets are attached to a rigid frame, TAVs must expand to fit within the native annulus. Fully-expanded circular TAVs have consistent leaflet kinematics; however, subtle variations in the degree of stent expansion may affect leaflet coaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of incomplete TAV expansion on leaflet stress and strain distributions.

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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play important roles in cellular metabolism and development. Various diseases have been associated with aberrant expression of lncRNAs and the related dysregulation of mRNAs. An lncRNA profiling assay was carried out to identify the key lncRNA in osteoarthritic human synoviocytes; the results revealed that prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1) was significantly overexpressed in osteoarthritic synoviocytes. Exogenous overexpression of PCGEM1 inhibited apoptosis, induced autophagy, and stimulated the proliferation of human synoviocytes. The increased expression of PCGEM1 in human synoviocytes also suppressed the expression of miR-770. Transfection of the miR-770 precursor resulted in reduced proliferation, and induced apoptosis of human synoviocytes.

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We have recently demonstrated that pathological changes leading to increased bone resorption by osteoclast activation are related to the induction of pain-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In addition, bisphosphonate and the antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), an acid-sensing nociceptor, improved the threshold value of pain-like behaviors accompanying an improvement in the acidic environment in the bone tissue based on osteoclast inactivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1) an inhibitor of vacuolar H+ -ATPase, known as an proton pump, 2) an antagonist of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 3, as another acid-sensing nociceptor, and 3) the P2 × 2/3 receptor, as an ATP-ligand nociceptor, on pain-like behavior in OVX mice.

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In this paper, an optimized design for rhombic transposition flaps is created using a reliable finite element model that assures convergence for stress and deformation results. Defining a general configuration for rhombic flaps, the surgical process of wound closure is simulated for a wide variety of patterns. To address the intrinsic uncertainties associated with modelling skin's mechanical properties, four different sets of material parameters are considered, to investigate statistical measures. The results suggest that implementing the rhombic flap technique in a way similar to Z-plasty leads to an optimized surgical technique. The proposed flap, which can be employed for 60° to 90° rhombic defects, can reduce the maximum von Mises stress by 53% (on average) with respect to the Dufourmentel flap, and, in the case of a 60° defect, 43% with respect to the Limberg flap.

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the common precursors of several functionally disparate cell lineages. A plethora of chemical and physical stimuli contribute to lineage decisions and guidance, including mechanical stretch concomitant with physical movement. Here, we examined how stretch regulates MSC differentiation into adipocytes and the intracellular signaling pathways involved. MSCs were cultured under adipogenic conditions and divided into a control and an experimental group. Cultures in the experimental group were subjected to a sinusoidal stretch regimen delivered via flexible culture bottoms (5% magnitude, 10 times per min, 6h/day, 3 or 5 days). Expression levels of the adipocyte markers PPARγ-2, adiponectin, and C/EBPα were measured as indices of differentiation.

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BACKGROUND: The anterior approach to the hip joint is widely used in pediatric and adult orthopaedic surgery, including hip arthroplasty. Atrophy of the tensor fasciae latae muscle has been observed in some cases, despite the use of this internervous approach. We evaluated the nerve supply to the tensor fasciae latae and its potential risk for injury during the anterior approach to the hip joint. METHODS: Cadaveric hemipelves (n = 19) from twelve human specimens were dissected. The course of the nerve branch to the tensor fasciae latae muscle, as it derives from the superior gluteal nerve, was studied in relation to the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery where it enters the tensor fasciae latae.

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BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there is currently no validated educational model to evaluate and teach basic arthroscopic skills that is widely accessible to orthopaedic residency training programs. The primary objective was to design and to validate a surgical simulation model by demonstrating that subjects with increasing level of training perform better on basic arthroscopic simulation tasks. The secondary objective was to evaluate inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the model. METHODS: Prospectively recruited participants were divided by level of training into four groups. Subjects performed six basic arthroscopic tasks using a box model: (1) probing, (2) grasping, (3) tissue resection, (4) shaving, (5) tissue liberation and suture-passing, and (6) knot-tying.

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