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The latest orthopaedic news from Medical News Today and local news publishers.

New research has delved into the biology behind osteoporosis. Researchers have mapped a cell mechanism that plays a key role in age-related bone loss. They suggest that the results not only shed light on the biology of osteoporosis but should also help to develop new drugs to treat the disease.In the journal PNAS, scientists from both the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Zhejiang University in China explain how a protein called Cbf-beta is important for controlling the rate at which new bone cells replace old ones. Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become weak and brittle, increasing the risk of fractures.

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By strengthening our muscles, we improve our lifespan. New research provides a window into how, on a cellular level, exercise can improve muscle health and, ultimately, exercise capacity, which is "the best predictor of mortality in the general population."A new study published in the journal Nature Communications describes how exercise helps the body to keep the cells in the muscles healthy and strong. "Whether muscle is healthy or not really determines whether the entire body is healthy or not," says lead researcher Prof. Zhen Yan, of the University of Virginia School of Medicine in Charlottesville.

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This content requires JavaScript to be enabled. Emrani, P. S., Katz, J. N., Kessler, C. L., Reichmann, W. M., McAlindon, T. E., & Losina, E. (2008, August). Joint space narrowing and Kellgren-Lawrence progression in knee osteoarthritis: An analytic literature synthesis [Abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 16(8), 873-882. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18280757 Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Patel, T. K., Laidlaw, D. H., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A.-P., … Crisco, J. J. (2015, October 15). Older asymptomatic women exhibit patterns of thumb carpometacarpal joint space narrowing that precede changes associated with early osteoarthritis. Journal of Biomechanics, 48(13), 3643-3649. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600656

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This content requires JavaScript to be enabled. Atakan, Z. (2012, December). Cannabis, a complex plant: Different compounds and different effects on individuals. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 2(6), 241-254. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736954/ Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., Mcllwrath, S. L., Stintcomb, A. L., … Westlund, K. N. (2015, October 30). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, 20(6), 936-948. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/ Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. (2017, June 1). An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: A review of clinical data and relevant animal studies.

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Anterolisthesis is an abnormal alignment of bones in the spine and usually affects the lower back.It occurs when an upper vertebra slips in front of the one below. Pain is often the first symptom of anterolisthesis. Misaligned vertebrae can pinch the nerves, and this can have painful and debilitating consequences. Other parts of the body, such as the arms or the legs, can also be affected by anterolisthesis. The amount of slippage is graded on a scale from mild to severe. Treatment can range from bed rest to surgery. Anterolisthesis is often known as spondylolisthesis. Contents of this article:CausesSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentRisk factorsOutlook

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Lumbar arthritis is a symptom of arthritis that affects the spine. The most common cause of lumbar arthritis is osteoarthritis.Lumbar arthritis, also known as spinal arthritis, is the result of degenerative changes from osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammation in the lowest joints of the lumbar spine. More than 54 million Americans live with some form of arthritis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with OA affecting 30 million. While OA is thought to be a normal part of aging, the pain and stiffness of lumbar arthritis can limit a person's ability to do even the simplest tasks, especially those that require bending and stretching.

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New research suggests that persistent feelings of stiffness in the lower back may be some kind of self-protective 'trick' that the mind plays on us in order to prevent further injuries. A new study into the neuroscience of clinical pain suggests that perceptions of stiffness may not reflect the actual state of the spine and joints. The team's findings may pave the way for new therapies that help those with chronic pain in their lower back. Lower back pain is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting around 9.4 percent of the global population.

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Spondylolisthesis occurs when one of the vertebrae in the spine slips out of position.Usually, this vertebra has slid forward over the vertebra directly below it. Spondylolisthesis is most common in the lower back, and occurs more often in adolescents and adults. Contents of this article:Types and gradesSymptomsCausesDiagnosisTreatment Types and grades Spondylolisthesis commonly affects the lower back. Due to the varying degrees and causes of the misalignment, spondylolisthesis is broken down into types and grades. The six main types are based on the cause of the spondylolisthesis. Type I - In some cases, people are born with spondylolisthesis.

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A new study has identified a new drug target that could change chronic pain medication going forward. New research has uncovered a target for chronic and pathologic pain, which could lead to better drugs for those affected by pain in the future.Chronic pain is "the most common cause of long-term disability," according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In fact, a recent analysis from the NIH estimates that more than 25 million people in the United States (or over 11 percent of the country's adult population) live with chronic pain. This means that they have experienced pain every day for the past 3 months.

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Ballet dancers may develop sesamoiditis. Sesamoid bones are unique because they are the only bones in the body that are not connected to other bones via joints. Instead, they are connected to other bones by tendons, or they are embedded in muscles in the body.Examples of sesamoid bones in the body include the kneecap and two small bones in the foot, which are roughly the size of a corn kernel. These foot bones are located underneath the foot, one on the outer side of the foot and the other near the middle of the foot. They are embedded in the tendon that helps move the big toe.

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