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The latest orthopaedic news from Medical News Today and local news publishers.

Scientists have uncovered a way to 'program' immune cells to cause less damage to the body, by tapping into a 'broken' chemical pathway in inflammation. The team, led by researchers at Imperial College London, Queen Mary University of London and Ergon Pharmaceuticals, believes the approach could offer new hope in the treatment of inflammatory conditions like arthritis, autoimmune diseases and sepsis. In a study published this week in the journal Nature Communications, they explain how blocking a single enzyme enabled them to reprogram macrophages - the immune cells which are activated in inflammatory conditions - to calm their activity and reduce inflammation in rats and mice with human-like disease.

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The menisci are two strong pieces of cartilage found in the knee. When one tears, it is known as a torn meniscus. This type of injury is common for athletes. Knee injuries are a problem for many people. The most common knee injury is the torn meniscus. Though a torn meniscus can happen to anyone, this injury occurs most often to athletes.A torn meniscus often happens suddenly during sports or other activities that cause a person to twist, rotate, bend, or lift very heavy objects. A torn meniscus causes a knee pain that often worsens over the span of a few days.

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The peroneal tendons are located in the foot, attaching muscle to bone. They assist with weight bearing and stability. Peroneal tendonitis occurs when the peroneal tendons become inflamed. This happens when there is an increased load and overuse of the tendons, leading to them rubbing on the bone. This friction causes the tendons to swell. Over time, the tendons will thicken in size to try and manage the increased load more efficiently. Peroneal tendonitis is particularly common in athletes and especially runners, as they are more likely to make their feet roll outwards, causing friction between the tendon and bone.

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In three randomized trials, treatment of chronic low back pain with radiofrequency denervation, a procedure that can be performed with different techniques including the application of an electric current to the pain-conducting nerve, resulted in either no improvement or no clinically important improvement in chronic low back pain, according to a study published by JAMA. Low back pain causes more disability than any other condition and has major social and economic consequences. Even though radiofrequency denervation is a commonly used treatment, high-quality evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. Esther T. Maas, Ph.D., of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and colleagues report the results of three randomized clinical trials that were conducted in 16 pain clinics in the Netherlands.

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The tailbone, or coccyx, is located at the lowest part of the spine. Tailbone pain or pain in the coccyx (the lowest portion of the spine) may occur suddenly after an obvious injury. It can also appear over time, with no apparent cause.The pain may radiate to the hips, thighs, or even to the rectum. It can make sitting difficult, exercise painful, and may even disrupt sleep. The right treatment, as well as some home management strategies, can help. This article explores the causes of tailbone pain, how it is diagnosed, and what can be done to treat it.

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IRVINE, Calif. [May 30, 2017] – Hoag Orthopedic Institute (HOI), one of the largest providers of orthopedic care in the nation, has been named a Modern Healthcare ‘Best Places to Work in Healthcare’ for 2017, making it the only hospital in southern California to receive the distinction two years in a row. Modern Healthcare, the industry’s leading source of healthcare business and policy news, research and information, is ranked number one in readership among healthcare executives.

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Breaking research from Keele University in the United Kingdom demonstrates that the act of swearing out loud can significantly increase physical strength. If you are prone to blue outbursts, these results might help you to muster an excuse to give offended bystanders.Swearing is generally considered a bad habit, but a recent study concludes that it might make you stronger. Alongside breathing and paying tax, swearing is a universal part of the human experience. Whether you never swear at all or make a regular habit of it, swear words are all around us. From giggling schoolchildren through to grumpy grandparents, swearing is rife.

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A new study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multi-center observational study of nearly 3500 participants, indicates that people who hear grating, cracking, or popping sounds in or around their knee joint may be at increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. This was a study of people who were at high risk for developing knee osteoarthritis. Among those who developed it within a year, more than 75% had signs of osteoarthritis on radiographic images but no frequent knee pain at the start of the study. The findings may be helpful for identifying individuals at risk for knee osteoarthritis, potentially assisting with earlier diagnosis and intervention.

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Runners, swimmers, and cyclists are familiar with the phenomenon of "hitting the wall" when the connection between brain and body feels like it's been lost: You know that you're still trying to move, but doing it feels more conceptual than physical. In Cell Metabolism, researchers show in mice the physiological basis for why this phenomenon occurs. Their research also found that training is not the only way to enhance endurance - it can also be achieved using a small molecule to stimulate a pathway that was already known to be activated by training. "It turns out that 'hitting the wall' happens when your brain can no longer get enough glucose.

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It goes without saying that physical activity is crucial when it comes to improving and maintaining health. However, for individuals with limited mobility, engaging in regular exercise is not an easy feat. A new study may have brought us one step closer to a solution: "exercise-in-a-pill."Researchers say that it may be possible to simulate the body's response to exercise with a drug. Researchers from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, CA, have discovered a chemical compound that can activate a gene normally stimulated by running. By activating this gene - called PPAR delta (PPARD) - in sedentary mice, the researchers were able to mimic the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise, such as increased endurance and fat burning.

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