Arthrocentesis – Aspiration of the joint

Capsule – Part of the synovial joint that, along with the lining, creates a pouch in which synovial fluid is secreted

Desmosomes – A small body that forms the site of attachment between cells

Hemarthrosis – The presence of blood in the joint

Monoarticular – Affecting a single joint

Pannus – A proliferation of synovium beginning at the periphery of the joint surface as seen in rheumatoid arthritis

Pigmented villonodular synovitis – A proliferative process of the synovial membrane of unknown etiology

Polyarticular – Affecting multiple joints

Primary synovial chondromatosis – A condition in which hyaline cartilage nodules grow within the synovial lining of a joint, bursa, or tendon sheath

Synovial fluid – The straw-colored fluid in the joint that is formed by filtration of capillary plasma

Synovial joints – Joints that have two opposing surfaces covered with articular cartilage and are attached at their periphery by the joint capsule

Synoviocytes – Cells that form the synovial membrane, remove debris, and secrete hyaluronic acid

Synovitis – A condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial lining

Synovium – A membrane-like lining of the synovial joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae

Type A synoviocytes – A type of synovial cell that plays a role in removing particulate debris from the joint

Type B synoviocytes – A type of synovial cell that secretes hyaluronic acid

Inflammatory and noninflammatory synovitis alters both the synovium and the composition of synovial fluid. In the synovial fluid of inflammatory joint diseases, the lysosomal enzymes released break down the hyaluronic acid “sieve” barrier.

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