Entries by cortana

Septic Arthritis

Septic arthritis is infection and inflammation of a joint caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral invasion of the synovium. Bacterial septic arthritis involves a single joint in 90% of cases. The knee is the most commonly involved joint, followed by the hip, shoulder, ankle, and wrist. Patients with septic arthritis typi- cally have acute swelling […]


Infections of the bones and joints, al- though less common than infections in other parts of the body, are nonetheless significant clinical problems.


Andersson GBJ: The epidemiology of spinal disor- ders, in Frymoyer JW (ed): The Adult Spine: Prin- ciples and Practice, ed 2. New York, NY, Raven Press, 1997, pp 93-141. Hensinger RN: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthe- sis in children. Instr Course Lect 1983;32:132-151. Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, et al: Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar […]

Key Terms

  Ankylosing spondylitis  An inflammatory disorder that affects the low back and pelvis and produces stiffness and pain Anulus fibrosus The outer ring of fibrous material surrounding the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disks Cauda equina The terminal nerve roots of the spinal cord located within the vertebral canal; so named because they resemble the […]

Differential Diagnosis

The first step of evaluation is to ensure that the back pain is not a harbinger of a serious medical condition. Thus tumor, infection, fracture, and instability should be excluded. A patient’s medical history often provides enough information to determine whether ra- diographs are needed on the first visit. When a patient has had back […]


Disk Disease Disk herniation is thought to be a major cause of back pain and sciatica. Intervertebral disks consist of an outer ring and a central core. The outer ring, the anulus fibrosus (translated literally as a “fibrous ring”) can tear as a result of an acute event or attrition. This tear permits the central […]


References 1. Lee DM, Weinblatt ME: Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2001;358:903-911. Aho K, Koskenvuo M, Tuominen J, et al: Occur- rence of rheumatoid arthritis in a nationwide series of twins. J Rheumatol 1986;13:899-902. Silman AJ, MacGregor AJ, Thomson W, et al: Twin concordance rates for rheumatoid arthritis: results from a nationwide study. Br J Rheumatol 1993;32: […]

Key Terms

Gout – An inflammatory arthritis associated with deposition of urate crystals in the joint Hyperuricemia – Elevated serum levels of urate Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis – A chronic inflammatory disease in children that is characterized by pain, swelling, and tenderness in one or more joints and may result in impaired growth and development Rheumatoid arthritis – A chronic […]