Entries by cortana

Other Inflammatory Arthritides

Gout is an inflammatory arthritis associated with elevated serum levels of urate (hyperuricemia). Hyperuricemia results from increased production or impaired excretion of uric acid. Acute inflammatory arthritis results when crystals of uric acid are deposited in joints. The synovium subsequently be- comes hyperemic and swollen, but pannus formation does not occur in acute cases. Neutrophils […]

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) may present as a systemic disease or as one affect- ing only the joints. Approximately 5% to 10% of children with JRA present with systemic signs, including fever, rash, pericarditis, or hepatosplenomegaly. These patients may have significant laboratory abnormalities, including leukocytosis and anemia. Although this form of disease can occur at […]

Inflammatory Arthritis

Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis heumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is probably triggered by an antigen and presents as an inflammatory reaction against the synovium in the joint (Fig. 1). This immune process leads to a proliferative synovitis (pannus formation), which proceeds to destroy the joint. Clinically, RA follows a course of waxing […]


1. Brandt KD: The role of analgesics in the manage- ment of osteoarthritis pain. Am J Ther 2000;7:75-90. 2. Brandt KD: (ed): Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Osteoarthritis, ed 2. Caddo, OK, ProfessionaCommunications, Inc, 2000. Shamoon M, Hochberg MC: The role of acetaminophen in the management of patients with osteoarthritis. Am J Med 2001;110(suppl 3A): […]

Key Terms

Lamina splendens – The protective top layer of articular cartilage Neuropathic arthritis – The chronic, progressive destruction of a joint that is caused by the loss of sensation from an underly- ing neurologic dysfunction; also known as Charcot arthropathy Osteonecrosis – The death of bone, often as a result of obstruction of its blood supply […]


Osteoarthritis is a family of degenerative joint diseases characterized by chronic pain, deformity, and progressive physical and psychological disability.


The study of disease is the study of patterns. Making a diagnosis is a process of matching a patient’s presentation to a set of signs, symp- toms, and findings that represent a defined biologic process.



Bone and Joints The spine is composed of 24 vertebrae that are organized into four regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral (Fig. 41). There are seven cervical vertebrae. Two of these are distinctly shaped: C1, the atlas (which holds up the globe of the head) and C2, the axis.


Foot and Ankle

Bone and Joints The ankle joint is the articulation of the leg bones (the tibia and fibula) and the talus (the superior-most bone of the foot). This joint is formed as the tibial shaft flares out distally to form the medial malleolus. This malleolus serves as a medial buttress of the ankle and as the […]