Most of the blood supply to the menisci originates from the superior and inferior branch- es of the medial and lateral geniculate arteries, which are fed, in turn, by the popliteal artery.
Up to 80% of the lateral tibial plateau articular cartilage is covered by the circular lateral meniscus.
The semicircular medial meniscus of an adult male is approximately 3.5 cm in diameter.
The knee menisci are crescent-shaped disks of fibrocartilage interposed between the fem- oral condyles and the tibial plateaus.
The microstructure of the meniscus consists of water, cells, collagen, proteoglycans, and gly- coproteins.
Nerve fibers, both myelinated and unmyelinated, have been identified throughout the entire meniscus.4,5 The fibers originate from the perimeniscal and synovial tissue of the knee and radiate into the periphery of the meniscus.
The menisci reduce friction between the femur and tibia by increasing congruency and maintaining a constant layer of synovial fluid between their gliding articular surfaces.
knee is the main source of resistance to an- terior tibial subluxation. When the ACL is injured, secondary restraints, such as the me- dial meniscus, become important.
The triangular cross-sectional anatomy of the meniscus allows maximal contact between the rounded end of the distal femur and the relatively flat tibial plateau.
Macroscopically, the meniscus has a fibrous, sponge-like structure that is filled with a gel of proteoglycans and water.
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