Fibrochondrocytes – Cells that are able to syn- thesize fibrous extracellular proteins and have the rounded appearance of chondrocytes

Intervertebral disk – The structure located between two moving vertebrae that stabi- lizes the spine, helps maintain its align- ment, allows motion between vertebral levels, absorbs energy, and distributes loads applied to the spine

Meniscus – A crescent-shaped disk of fibrocar- tilage located between the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau

Sharpey’s fibers – The small collagen fibers that attach tendon to bone; in the spine they connect the outer edges of interverte- bral disks to the vertebral bodies

Viscoelastic structure – A structure whose mechanical properties depend on the rate of loading