Inclusion Criteria:

All participants who were allocated to the study all had a history of taking tolerable and adequate dose of urate lowering therapy including febuxostat 40-80mg daily or allopurinol 200-300 mg daily for at least 4 weeks and were defined as difficult to treat or refractory gout patients. All patients had a negative of rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, Hb>100g/L, total leukocyte count≥3.5×109, PLT≥80×109, serum creatinine<133umol/L, transaminases<60U/L and fasting urate≥6.0mg/dL.

Inclusion criteria for the gouty patients were age≥18 years old, BMI(18-30kg/m2). All participants enrolled in our study fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for primary gout.

Exclusion Criteria:

Exclusion criteria included secondary gout (because it is always associated with some underlying renal disease), a history of congestive heart failure, serum creatinine≥133umol/L (because the patients have underlying risks if NSAID needed) or the use of glucocorticoid>15mg daily,colchicine, uricosuric drugs, chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy in the past three months.

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